WaterSHED Factsheet
WaterSHED Organizational Factsheet

Overview of WaterSHED’s key activity areas.

Sanitation Marketing in Cambodia
Hands Off! Catalyzing the market for sanitation in Cambodia

WaterSHED’s sanitation marketing program in Cambodia

Quick Sheet on our Sanitation Marketing Program in Cambodia
WASH-M Program at a glance

A quick overview of WaterSHED’s sanitation marketing program in Cambodia

Evaluating Household Water Treatment Options
Evaluating household water treatment options: Health-based targets and microbiological performance specifications

Authors: Prof. Mark Sobsey (WaterSHED) and Dr. Joe Brown (WaterSHED)

This document sets forth global criteria to evaluate whether a household water treatment (HWT) option reduces waterborne pathogens sufficiently to protect health. Through use of a risk-based framework and by emphasizing the philosophy of incremental improvement, it is intended to provide implementers and policy-makers with an evidence-based and pragmatic approach to select options suited to local conditions. The document provides a range of technical recommendations, including:

  • A step-by-step overview of how to evaluate HWT microbiological performance
  • Elaboration of health-based water quality targets ranging from interim to highly protective, including establishment of default targets for use in data-scarce settings
  • Description of technology-specific laboratory testing protocols and guiding principles
  • Considerations relating to developing national technology evaluation programs.

This document is especially intended for resource-scarce settings where water quality laboratories may have limited capacity and incremental improvements of HWT performance could have a substantial, positive impact on public health.

Safe Water for All
Safe Water for All: Harnessing the private sector to reach the underserved

Authors: Joe Brown (WaterSHED – London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) Tom Outlaw (WaterSHED, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Thomas Clasen (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine) Jianyong Wu (The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Mark D. Sobsey (WaterSHED – The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

This report examines a range of technologies and revenue models intended to increase safe-water access among lower-income populations, with primary attention on East Africa, India, and China as important emerging markets. Although sanitation and hygiene are key factors of human health and well-being, the survey primarily targeted the safe-water sector, while recognizing that there are several similar applications to business models that provide sanitation services.

The survey identified several major barriers to reaching the BOP markets globally, including:

  • Consumer challenges
  • Entrepreneurial challenges
  • Enabling environment challenges
  • Physical environment challenges

To address these challenges, a number of safe-water technologies and business models have evolved that strive to realize both social and financial returns. This report discusses some of these business models and how they have leveraged different revenue streams, partner- ships, and sources of financing to improve access to safe water in BOP markets.

Paul Simon Water For the Poor Act
Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act


USAID Sanitation Marketing for Managers Cover
Sanitation marketing for managers: Guidance and tools for program development


This guidance manual draws significantly on previous work by Dr. Mimi Jenkins (WaterSHED – The University of California-Davis) and many of the activities and tools described in this guide were initially developed by Dr. Jenkins in collaboration with local partners and tested in two sites in sub-Saharan Africa under the DFID-funded Knowledge and Research Project.

This manual provides guidance and tools for designing a sanitation marketing program. It guides professionals in the fields of sanitation and marketing to complete two important and necessary steps: (1) to comprehensively assess the current market for sanitation products and services and (2) to use the results of this assessment to design a multi-pronged strategy to:

  • Build the capacity of appropriate market actors to provide necessary sanitation market functions;
  • Create and strengthen the incentives for these actors to participate in the market and to collaborate with one another;
  • Permit actors to proactively take on functions from which they will benefit, e.g., financially, politically;
  • Develop appropriate products and services that respond to consumer preferences; and
  • Create appropriate marketing messages and plans for promotion and communication to market the products and services to consumers.

Teaching Aids at Low Cost is offering a spiral-bound edition of this guide. For purchasing information please see TALC’s website.

WaterSHED Issue Brief 1
WaterSHED Issue Brief 1

Innovative WASH financing tools

WaterSHED Issue Brief 2
WaterSHED Issue Brief 2

Mitigating climate change by providing clean water in Cambodia

WaterSHED Issue Brief 3
WaterSHED Issue Brief 3

Carbon credits for clean air and drinking water