Civic Leadership: Evaluation Brief & Terms of Reference


With a strong link between inadequate WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) and poverty, the dominant premise under which decades of development efforts have been formulated is that necessary capital expenditures must be subsidized by donors. However, subsidies and donations are limited both in scale and duration, and are frequently captured by elites. Only some households ultimately receive a free kit but the dependency effect is widespread. This suppresses market demand, which in turn stifles supply. WaterSHED aimed to break this cycle by seeking to truly understand the barriers to adoption of WASH products and services – beyond the oft-cited lack of resources by consumers. The findings were significant: while many Base of the Pyramid consumers are indeed price sensitive, there are many other barriers to access, including: distance to district centers, cost of transportation, complex purchase process, and a lack of product knowledge. All inhibited mass uptake. Identifying and breaking down barriers to access is part of the solution. Understanding the motivation to change is more complex and requires a nuanced understanding of behavior.

WaterSHED has drawn heavily on the evidence. Cairncross (2004), Jenkins (2002) and Salter (2008), argued that the development of the market is the only sustainable approach to meeting the need for sanitation in developing countries. Indicators of household decisionmaking and demand for sanitation are examined by Jenkins & Scott (2007). They explain how demand for improved sanitation in developing countries is a complex social and behavioral process.

WaterSHED pioneered the Hands-Off approach to WASH marketing, which has emerged as a true value-chain development success story at the forefront of WASH development. Beginning in 2009 in Cambodia, WaterSHED listened to consumers and suppliers to identify the key barriers inhibiting mass adoption of improved WASH products, including latrines. The result was a program designed to stimulate and enable the private sector to respond to the WASH needs of local consumers, while also encouraging sustainable demand.

WaterSHED’s Hands-Off program in Cambodia has enabled the sale of over 70,000 toilets. This is more than any other program of its kind in the world, and has set the benchmark for program cost-effectiveness. Beyond fostering new private transactions in the latrine market, WaterSHED’s program has opened the door to further innovation in social marketing, WASH financing, and civic leadership; all supporting deeper market penetration and thus greater opportunities for economic and health gains.

The Civic Champions Project

Civic leaders have become confident in taking action to improve the standard of living in their villages. Leaders are proactive, taking initiative and using all resources in their power. Leaders believe they can make a positive change and inspire their villagers to make change together. Leaders actively involve villagers by seeking their input and ideas to make positive changes in their villages. All villagers are healthy and have access to adequate sanitation.

WaterSHED’s Civic Champions project supports a Community of Action comprised of rural leaders working to identify and implement effective ways of developing leadership potential to raise rural standards of living. Over the course of one year, participants join a cyclical 90-day program to discover, develop and deploy their leadership capability. The program is about transforming values, mindsets and behaviors, creating a dynamic leadership community.These Champions use their leadership to promote and coordinate change in their communities. They inspire and connect the business sector, community members/groups, and government to achieve better outcomes for their communities. As agents of change, they lead collective action towards the attainment of total sanitation and other and other essential development priorities. The project uses participatory methods to monitor progress and actively shares results with the wider community, including media and government.

Proof of Concept
This 12-month proof-of-concept project, in partnership with sub national government is being implemented in two districts in Kampong Speu province, comprising approximately 28 communes and 350 villages. A highly successful project will be characterised by the emergence of a cohort of civic leaders who can influence and motivate those within their sphere of influence to bring about a dramatic improvement in sanitation coverage, including many villages with 100% access. This transformation will be evaluated alongside ‘comparison’ districts in order to determine the effectiveness of the methodology to catalyze civic champions and enable more rapid and cost-effective total sanitation.

Key integrated innovations:

  1. Government leadership: dramatically improve the enabling environment by identifying and cultivating sub-national officials to be successful civic champions.
  2. Social marketing: messages and images/media that inspire behaviour change and engage local authorities to become civic champions for improved sanitation.
  3. Enterprise Development: engage local producers to offer attractive, low-cost, products through insight into viable business models that maximize outcomes.

Assignment Title
Cultivating Civic Champions: Evaluating leadership capacity development among elected local-level government representatives in rural Cambodia.

To evaluate of the Civic Champions Project to verify whether the leadership program concept has further potential. Objectives

  1. To understand the ability of participants to inspire and motivate their peers and constituents to engage in community level change;
  2. To assess the role of the pilot project in developing the participants’ ability to inspire and motivate their peers and constituents and assess the participants perceived change in self efficacy;
  3. To determine whether change in sanitation coverage in treatment districts can be attributed to the leadership of members of the civic leadership cohort;
  4. To assess the cost-effectiveness of the program in terms of changes in sanitation coverage;
  5. To provide recommendations for future iterations and as appropriate, for scaling up the project.

Key Tasks

  1. Prepare an inception report
  2. Review background documents, multimedia and website materials provided by WaterSHED.
  3. Review and summarise information and data captured through the Civic Champions monitoring mechanism.
  4. Conduct a series of interviews and focus group discussions with participants.
  5. Conduct key informant interviews including:
    • key WaterSHED staff
    • project consultants
    • selected Advisory Group members.


  1. Present the inception report to WaterSHED
  2. Prepare a power point presentation of the methodology, key findings and recommendations.
  3. Present the methodology, key findings and recommendations to WaterSHED.
  4. Prepare a 2-page summary of the methodology, key findings and recommendations.
  5. Provide photos of activities undertaken during the evaluation.
  6. Produce a Final Evaluation Report including the following:
    • A summary of project activities, achievements and challenges;
    • An assessment of the project’s influence on civic leadership capacity and attitudes to leadership, both for participants and their peers and constituents;
    • An assessment of the project’s impact on the change in sanitation coverage;
    • A compilation and analysis of feedback from participants and other key informants; and
    • Recommendations for the continuation and, if appropriate, the scale-up of activities.

The schedule of work is to be developed by the consultant in the period from late August to early September 2014. The assignment is expected to take 10-12 days. The assignment will require the consultant to work in both Phnom Penh and Kampong Speu Province. The final report and other deliverables are required to be submitted by 26 September 2014.

The consultant is to develop a budget for this scope of work including all interpretation and translation and all in country travel. For international consultants an additional international travel budget will be negotiated.

The Consultant must have proven experience with local governance in Cambodia and demonstrated experience in the evaluation of development projects. Knowledge of, or experience with, the use of Outcome Mapping or Outcome Harvesting methodologies will
be an asset.

Bid Instructions
To submit a bid (firm) or to apply (individual), please submit maximum 1 page explanation of proposed evaluation methodology or approach and listing of previous relevant experience (firm) or CV (individual). Submit electronically to before 04/07/2014.

Please click here for pdf file.

One Response

  1. Flora
    Flora December 18, 2014 at 19:26 | | Reply

    This page really has all the information I needed concerning this subject and didn’t know who to ask.

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